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Wheat is one of the most popular grains in the world. It comes from the grass family. Wheat is the most important crop in the world. It is used in the milling, food and pharmaceutical industries. The largest areas in the world are occupied by winter wheat and on average it gives the highest yields. Winter wheat is sown in autumn and overwinters in the phase from germination to sowing. Wheat can be divided according to the method of cultivation and consists of 2 groups: winter wheat and spring wheat. Winter wheat is grown in areas with more moderate winters, and spring wheat is better tolerated in more northern areas. The differences between winter and spring wheat are: In the world, winter wheat occupies larger areas and on average gives higher yields than spring and its general economic importance is higher. Winter wheat gives a higher and more stable yield compared to spring. Wheat cultivation is widespread in almost all parts of the world, due to its excellent adaptation to different soil and climatic conditions, but it is most often grown in lowland areas. The wheat harvest can take place in one, two or several stages. Single-phase harvest is performed with harvesters, and the harvest should be completed in 5-8 days. During a single-phase harvest, grain losses are the smallest. Two-phase harvest – begins with mowing wheat at a height of 20 cm or more. After that, it is left to dry in the slopes, and then it is done with a combine harvester. In this way, the harvest can be done at the right time and achieve a better yield, but there is also spillage of grain in the elevator. Storage Wheat grains must be dried to prevent the development of mold and to be stored for as long as possible. It can be dried in the sun or in dryers. When drying in the sun, they should be distributed in as thin a layer as possible on the substrate. It should be overturned from time to time. It shrinks and covers before sunset. This method of drying is suitable for smaller amounts of wheat, because it requires a lot of space, lasts longer and requires a lot of effort. Larger quantities are dried in dryers, which can be dried with hot air or a mixture of hot gases. The temperature must never exceed 40 ° C. Wheat is stored in well-known silos. Prior to storage, silos should be cleaned and disinfected as well as wheat, as there is a risk of parasites. It is important that the silos are protected from moisture and sun and not damaged.

Drying wheat

In order to prepare the grains for storage, it is of great importance to clean the wheat from impurities. This is immediately followed by drying of the grain, which reduces the moisture content in the grain. There are several ways to dry wheat, and the most popular choice is the natural way – in the sun, or by drying in dryers. One of the advantages of drying grain in the sun is that in this way of drying there is no danger of germs being injured when exposed to high temperatures. In order to achieve the best results, the most important thing is to spread the grain on a previously prepared surface or substrate without damage and cracks in a thin layer of 10 – 12 cm. It should be turned over occasionally, and collected and covered with a tarpaulin during the night. Although this method prevents grain damage, it requires a large substrate for drying and labor consumption, so it is applied more to smaller quantities of grain, while dryers are used for larger quantities.

Drying wheat in the dryer

This method is more used than drying grains in the sun. For drying purposes, dryers are used in which air is heated or the mixture itself is obtained from heated air (gases). The constructions are different, and only those grains with a moisture content above 16% are used for this method of drying. During the drying process, the temperature must not exceed 40 ° C, and good ventilation is very important, which protects the seed grain from damage.


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